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題名:「兩廣事變」中蔣中正對兩廣的和戰態度
書刊名:國史館館刊
作者:王宏松
作者(外文):Wang, Horng-song
出版日期:2011
卷期:27
頁次:頁1-3+5-45
主題關鍵詞:蔣中正粵系桂系兩廣事變Chiang Kai-shekThe Guangdong CliqueThe Guangxi CliqueThe Guangdong-Guangxi Incident
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當國民政府的統治力量,擴張到全國大多數地區時,兩廣卻仍然以「中國國民黨西南執行部」、「國民政府西南政務執行委員會」等組織,以「均權分治」為號召,對南京中央維持著半獨立狀態。到了1936年,寧粵長期的對峙關係出現了激烈的變化。首先是粵漢鐵路即將接通,這對中央勢力進入廣東提供莫大的便利。其次是胡漢民突然因腦溢血逝世,這使得兩廣失去了重要的政治支柱。粵桂實力派領袖陳濟棠、李宗仁、白崇禧以西南政務委員會及西南執行部名義,打著反對日本增兵華北,要求政府立即出兵抗日的旗號,是為「兩廣事變」,或稱「六一事變」。 本文以國史館的「蔣中正總統檔案」為基礎,其內容有「事略稿本」、「革命文獻-兩廣事變」、「特交文卷」等,輔以國史館新出版的《陳誠先生回憶錄-北伐平亂》、《陳誠先生書信集-家書》,近史所出版的《王子壯先生日記》等,希望對兩廣事變中蔣中正對兩廣的和戰態度有進一步的認識。本文擬分析兩廣事變之初,蔣中正對粵桂的不同處理方針,其次論述在陳濟棠的勢力瓦解後,蔣氏為何對桂系的態度丕變。最後討論兩廣事變和平落幕的原因,蔣與桂系雙方各有何考量因素。事變最終和平落幕,對蔣中正而言,應付國內實力派的挑戰是先作好軍事準備,但不輕易發動戰爭同時對外塑造有誠意談和的形象,以贏得輿論的好評,這代表其統治手腕已更加成熟。
When the National Government (Kuomin Government) controlled most of the territory in China, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, with the appeal for sharing power between separated governments, still maintained quasi-independence from the Nanjing Central Government by organizing the Southwestern Executive Branch of the Kuomintang and the Southwestern Political Affairs Committee of the National Government, In 1936, the long-standing standoff between the Nanjing Government and the Southwestern National Government showed a dramatic change. Firstly, the Yuehan railway was set to go into operation, which would greatly benefit the Central Government in entering Guangdong. Secondly, Hu Hanmin's sudden death of cerebral haemorrhage deprived Guangdong and Guangxi of their important political patron. The powerful leaders of the Guangdong and Guangxi Clique, including Chen Jitang, Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi, opposed Japan to increase military forces in the North of China and used this issue as a pretext to urge the government to fight against Japan immediately. It was called the "Guangdong-Guangxi Incident" or the "June 1 Incident." The research drew reference mainly from the Chiang Kai-shek Collections and was supplemented with the Memoirs of Chen Cheng: the North Expedition and the National Unification and the Chen Cheng Correspondence Collection with Family newly published by the Academia Historica and the Diary of Wang Tzu-chuang published by the institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica. This research hopes to gain better understanding of Chiang Kai-shek's attitude toward the Guangdong and Guangxi Clique during the Guangdong-Guangxi Incident. The research tried to analyze different policies Chiang Kai-shek adopted towards Guangdong and Guangxi respectively at the beginning of the incident. And then the research explained why Chiang changed his attitude toward the Guangxi Clique dramatically after Chen Jitang's power collapsed. Finally, the research discussed what Chiang and the Guangxi Clique had in mind to end the Guangdong-Guangxi Incident peacefully. The peaceful ending of the incident meant that Chiang Kai-shek was prepared for the challenges from the powerful domestic warlords while maintaining not to launch wars easily. He established the image of being willing to negotiate for peace and was embraced bygood public opinion. This was a sign that he was getting more proficient in political maneuvering.
 
 
 
 
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